“The bishop of the Isle of Man is known as Bishop of “Sodor and Man”. This is because the Isle of Man was part of the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles, which included the Hebrides, known in Old Norse as the Suðreyjar, (anglicised as “The Sudreys”) i.e. “Southern Isles” in contradistinction to Norðreyjar (“The Nordreys”), or the “Northern Isles”, i.e. Orkney and Shetland. The Sudreys became “Sodor”, which was fossilised in the name of the Diocese, long after it ceased to have any authority over the Scottish Islands. After the Reformation, the Church of England took the name for itself. Thus there is no Island of Sodor; rather, the fictional island takes its name from an archipelago. Awdry was intrigued to find that although the Bishop had the title “Sodor and Man”, he had only Man for his diocese. “Everybody knew that there was an Isle of Man, but we decided to ‘discover’ another island – the Island of Sodor – and so give the poor deprived Bishop the other half of his diocese!” (Rev. W. Awdry) Hence Awdry sited Sodor in the Irish Sea, between the Isle of Man and Barrow-in-Furness in Cumbria.”
- Beauty: late 13c., from Anglo-Norm. beute, O.Fr. biauté (12c., “beauty, seductiveness, beautiful person,” Mod.Fr. beauté), earlier beltet, from V.L. bellitatem (nom. bellitas) “state of being handsome,” from L. bellus ”pretty, handsome, charming,” in classical L. used especially of women and children, or ironically or insultingly of men, perhaps related to bonus ”good,” bene ”well.”
- Composition: late 14c., “action of combining,” also “manner in which a thing is composed,” from O.Fr. composicion (13c., Mod.Fr. composition) “composition, make-up, literary work, agreement, settlement,” from L. compositionem, ”a putting together,” noun of action from pp. stem of componere (see composite). Meaning “art of constructing sentences” is from 1550s; that of “literary production” (often also “writing exercise for students”) is from c.1600. Meaning “arrangement of parts in a picture” is from 1706.
- Paint: early 13c., from O.Fr. peinter, from peint, pp. of peindre ”to paint,” from L. pingere ”to paint,” from PIE base *pik-/*pig- ”cut.” Sense evolution between PIE and L. was, presumably, from “decorate with cut marks” to “decorate” to “decorate with color.” Cf. Skt. pingah ”reddish,” pesalah ”adorned, decorated, lovely,” pimsati “hews out, cuts, carves, adorns;” O.C.S. pegu ”variegated;” Gk. poikilos ”variegated;” O.H.G. fehjan ”to adorn;” O.C.S. pisati, Lith. piesiu ”to write.” Probably representing the “cutting” branch of the family are O.E. feol (see file (n.)); O.C.S. pila ”file, saw,” Lith. pela ”file.” The noun is from c.1600. The verb meaning “to color with paint” (mid-13c.) is earlier than the artistic sense of “to make a picture of” (late 13c.) and older than painting in the sense of “an artist’s picture in paint” (late 14c.); but painter is older in the sense of “artist who paints pictures” (mid-14c.) than in the sense of “workman who colors surfaces with paint” (c.1400).
- Draw: c.1200, spelling alteration of O.E. dragan ”to drag, to draw, protract” from P.Gmc. *draganan ”carry” (cf. O.N. draga ”to draw,” O.S. dragan, O.Fris. draga, M.Du. draghen, O.H.G. tragen, Ger. tragen ”to carry, bear”), from PIE base *dhragh- (see drag). Sense of “make a line or figure” (by “drawing” a pencil across paper) is c.1200.
- Sculpt: late 14c., from L. sculptura ”sculpture,” from pp. stem of sculpere ”to carve, engrave,” back-formation from compounds such as exculpere, from scalpere ”to carve, cut,” from PIE base *(s)kel- ”to cut, cleave.”
- Point: 12c., a merger of two words, both ultimately from L. pungere ”prick, pierce” (see pungent). The neut. pp. punctum was used as a noun, meaning “small hole made by pricking,” subsequently extended to anything that looked like one, hence, “dot, particle,” etc., which was its meaning as O.Fr. point, borrowed in M.E. by c.1300. The fem. pp. of pungere was puncta, which was used in M.L. to mean “sharp tip,” and became O.Fr. pointe, which also passed into English, early 14c. The sense have merged in English, but remain distinct in French. Extended senses are from the notion of “minute, single, or separate items in an extended whole,” which is the earliest attested sense in English (early 13c.). Meaning “distinguishing feature” is recorded from late 15c. Meaning “a unit of score in a game” is first recorded 1746. As a typeface unit (in Britain and U.S., one twelfth of a pica), it went into use in U.S. 1883.
- Line: from O.E. line ”rope, row of letters,” and from O.Fr. ligne, both from L. linea ”linen thread, string, line,” from phrase linea restis ”linen cord,” from fem. of lineus (adj.) “of linen,” from linum ”linen” (see linen). Oldest sense is “rope, cord, string;” extended late 14c. to “a thread-like mark” (from sense “cord used by builders for making things level,” mid-14c.), also “track, course, direction.” Sense of “things or people arranged in a straight line” is from 1550s.
- Juxtaposition: 1660s, coined in Fr. 17c. from L. juxta ”beside, near” + Fr. position (see position (n.)). Latin juxta is a contraction of *jugista (adv.), superlative of adj. *jugos “closely connected,” from stem of jugum ”yoke,” from jungere ”to join” (see jugular).
- System: 1610s, “the whole creation, the universe,” from L.L. systema ”an arrangement, system,” from Gk. systema ”organized whole, body,” from syn- ”together” + root of histanai ”cause to stand” from PIE base *sta- ”to stand” (see stet). Meaning “set of correlated principles, facts, ideas, etc.” first recorded 1630s. Meaning “animal body as an organized whole, sum of the vital processes in an organism” is recorded from 1680s; hence figurative phrase to get (something) out of one’s system (1900). Computer sense of “group of related programs” is recorded from 1963.
- Network: “net-like arrangement of threads, wires, etc.,” 1560, from net (n.) + work (n.). Extended sense of “any complex, interlocking system” is from 1839 (orig. in ref. to transport by rivers, canals, and railways). Sense of “interconnected group of people” is from 1947. The verb, in ref. to computers, is from 1972; in ref. to persons, it is attested from 1980s.