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11:32am on January 22nd, 2013

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    4. nickkahler posted this

    Great Kiva of Chetro Ketl, Chaco Canyon, NM, c. 1020 CE

    'A kiva is a room used by modern Puebloans for religious rituals, many of them associated with the kachina belief system. Among the modern Hopi and most other Pueblo peoples, kivas are square-walled and underground, and are used for spiritual ceremonies. Similar subterranean rooms are found among ruins in the American southwest, indicating ritual or cultural use by the ancient peoples of the region including the Ancient Pueblo Peoples, the Mogollon and the Hohokam. Those used by the ancient Pueblos of the Pueblo I Era and following, designated by the Pecos Classification system developed by archaeologists, were usually round, and generally believed to have been used for religious and other communal purposes.The meaning of Chetro Ketl is disputed; an Indian guide for the 1849 Simpson expedition, Carravahal, claimed it meant rain pueblo or rain village. Later Navajo sources gave names such as “shining pueblo” and “corner house” but no one translation is agreed upon.’